Formaldehyde Residues Following Fumigation of Leafcutting Bee Cells and Neutralization with Ammonia Gas By David Ostermann Introduction Formaldehyde fumigation (using paraformaldehyde product) for many producers in Manitoba is their first treatment choice for chalkbrood control, over bleach or heat treatments. Formaldehyde fumigation of live cells is conducted in the spring in conjunction with the incubation of the cells for development of adults and subsequent alfalfa pollination that season. While it is very effective at controlling leafcutting bee pathogens, there are health concerns with formaldehyde gas as it is toxic and overexposure may be fatal (EC/HC 1999). It may be harmful by inhalation, ingestion, or skin absorption. For these reasons it is important to avoid dangerous exposure to formaldehyde and to follow the product Handling Precautions as indicated on the label. The current formaldehyde-based chalkbrood control practice is to expose the leafcutting bee cells and equipment to high concentrations of formaldehyde gas for a 24-hour period, then ventilate the fumigation area for 48-72 hours, and longer if necessary. Neutralisation with ammonium bicarbonate quickly reduces formaldehyde concentrations in the air without adversely affecting chalkbrood control and without hurting development of the leafcutting bees (Lafreniere 2001). It is generally accepted that formaldehyde gas reacts with ammonia gas to produce hexamine (synonym hexamethylenetetramine) (and potentially other amine gases). While hexamine has been identified as a harmless substance (Kawamata and Kodera 2004; Ostermann 2005), other sources indicate that hexamine is an irritant to eyes, nose, and skin, is hazardous (Dugan and Serago 2005; NJDHSS 1999), and may decompose to formaldehyde in the presence of perspiration (ie sweat; slightly acidic 4-6.5) (Dugan and Serago 2005), and therefore should be handled with caution. In the solid form, hexamine is a white, crystalline powder with a mild ammonia odor. This study assesses the levels of formaldehyde gas in the air that may be left behind following the fumigation of live leafcutting bee cells, neutralization with ammonia gas, and venting, at a local producer operation, and discusses the safety risk associated with residual substances. Methods The fumigation trials were conducted in conjunction with cell fumigation and incubation practices at a local producer operation. The study involved two rooms equipped with ceiling fans for good air circulation, exhaust fans, door vents, and temperature and humidity control systems. The rooms were pre-conditioned to increase RH and bring temperature to 23°C. Prior to fumigation, the rooms were entirely sealed using plastic sheeting and duct tape. Both rooms contained trays with live loose leafcutting bee cells and were fumigated with formaldehyde and ammonia (eg. paraformaldehyde and 1 ammonium bicarbonate). The experiment was conducted over a 20-day period (up to incubation day 15) in June, 2005. The procedure for the formaldehyde fumigation portion of the experiment followed the label recommendation for paraformaldehyde fumigation (Goerzen 2002) of alfalfa leafcutting bee nest material and leafcutting bee cells. Paraformaldehyde prills, at a rate of 1.10 lbs per 1000 ft 3 , were heated to about 200°C+ in electric frying pans for 4 hours then left for 20 more hours. Next, ammonium bicarbonate crystals, at a rate of 1.43 lbs per 1000 ft 3 (30% more than paraformaldehyde product (see Addendum) were heated to about 200°C in electric frying pans for 4 hours then left for 2 more hours before venting. The paraformaldehyde product was purchased from Cleartech in Winnipeg. The ammonium bicarbonate was purchased from Univar Canada Ltd. in Winnipeg. Addendum: Luftman (2005) reports that the determined theoretical weight ratio of ammonium bicarbonate (AB) to paraformaldehyde (PF; 90%), for neutralization, is between 1.55 and 1.58 (i.e. 60% more AB than PF product), and therefore, this greater amount of AB may provide additional PF neutralization. Ammonium carbonate (AC) may also be used and the weight ratio is between 1.06 and 1.10 (i.e. 10% more AC than PF product). Neutralization efficacy results may vary with operation. This method is not registered on the paraformaldehyde label. Refer to product label Handling Precaution; personal protection is important, including full-face respirator, gloves, and impervious clothing. Adequate aggressive ventilation is important to help reduce levels of any hazardous residual gasses. Approximately 6 million live cells were put in each room. The dimensions of the rooms were approx. 24’x13’x10’. Following the fumigation and neutralization processes, the rooms were ventilated with a 12” exhaust wall fan (Princess Auto; 800 max. CFM rating) and door vents for a period of 48 hours. After the rooms were ventilated, the temperature in the room was increased to 30°C and water put on the floor of the rooms to increase the relative humidity for incubation of the bees. A timer connected to the fan was used to provide additional venting (10 min. periods, 14 times a day) to incubation day 7 when dichlorvos strips for parasites were placed in the room. Biosign biological indicators (Getinge Canada Ltd.), for monitoring steam and ethylene oxide sterilization cycles, were used to determine if the fumigation process was successfully executed. Two Biosign indicators were placed in each room during formaldehyde fumigation and processed in a laboratory to determine viability. In the incubator rooms, an area (approx. 4ft 2 ) was marked out on the floor with duct tape and wiped clean before fumigation and neutralization, to see if solid residue could be observed following neutralization. To monitor levels of formaldehyde in the air over the course of the experiment, ¼ inch plastic tubing was run from the outside to the centre of each room, 5 ft off the ground. The amount of formaldehyde in the air was measured using three methods including Dräger pump and tubes (Dräger Safety AG & Co. KGaA; formaldehyde 0.2 and 40 ppm), 2 SKC (XAD-2 (2-hydromethylpiperidine); category #226-118) tubes (SKC Inc.) and pump and the PortaSens II system (AFC International Inc.; sensor part #00-1040). The SKC tubes and pump were purchased and serviced by Maxxam Analytics Inc. Laboratory analysis was done according to NIOSH method 2541. Measurements were taken during fumigation, neutralization, and following ventilation, up to incubation day 15, on which day temperature was reduced to halt bee development. Air from the rooms was drawn through the SKC tubes for 30 mins., then sent to the Maxxam Analytics lab for analysis, with results available within a week or so. At the time of this experiment, no system was found to be immediately available to measure hexamine. Relative humidity and temperature were recorded with HOBO H8 loggers (Onset Corporation Inc.). Given the limitations of the PortaSens II and the Dräger tube monitoring techniques, only the SKC tube results are discussed below as these readings are considered more reliable under the conditions of this experiment. Results and Discussion When comparing the different formaldehyde gas measurement systems used in this experiment, there are some points that should be discussed. The PortaSens II system has some advantages in that it is electronic, does not use disposable tubes making it possible to take many samples without additional cost, and gives a reading in approx. 5 mins; however, the formaldehyde-specific sensor is costly, and the PortaSens II system, as indicated in the accompanying literature, may be affected by other gases in the room, such as ammonia, and therefore is less valuable in this situation. The Dräger tube system is less expensive than the SKC tube system and gives a reading in about a min.; however the measurements on the Dräger tube can be difficult to read and the system does not necessarily distinguish between formaldehyde including a closely related chemical, hexamine. It is not clear whether the Dräger tube reading would represent the sum of formaldehyde and hexamine levels in the air in this experiment. The SKC tube method is believed to be very accurate at measuring air-borne chemicals; however it is the most expensive system of the three used in this experiment, and it takes much longer to get a reading. Fig. 1 shows the differences in three formaldehyde gas measurement systems. Due to problems with collecting data from one room, where formaldehyde couldn’t be detected and the cause of the problem remained unknown after examination, only data from the second room is discussed below. During fumigation of the live leafcutting bee cells in this experiment (before incubation), levels in the air reached 150 parts per million (ppm) (n=1), then dropped quickly to 6.5 ppm (n=1) after neutralization, then got down around 3.0 ppm (n=1) after 48 hr of full ventilation of the room (Fig. 1). During incubation (after neutralization and 48 hr ventilation), levels of formaldehyde in the air ranged from 1.7 to 4.1 ppm (n=5) to 17 days after fumigation (incubation day 13) with the lower levels being recorded later in the experiment. On incubation day 15, to hold development of the bees, the temperature in the room was reduced to 15 o C, and the level of formaldehyde also dropped to 0.2 ppm (n=1). Relative humidity in the room ranged from 50-70% until about incubation day 7 and was affected by timed venting over this period. From incubation day 7 to 15, relative humidity ranged from 60-70%. The temperature in the room remained near 30 o C from the start of incubation up to day 15. 3 The Biosign biological indicators indicated that the formaldehyde fumigation was effective in killing the indicator bacteria. In the marked area on the floor, and around the room, no obvious white residue powder was observed, where hexamine residue may have been expected. As a general guideline, 2 ppm is the 15 min. short term exposure limit (STEL), and 0.75 ppm is the 8-hr day permissible exposure limit (PEL) for formaldehyde gas for people (OSHA 2002). These results suggest that when treating alfalfa leafcutting bee cells, the level of formaldehyde gas that may be present following neutralization and venting may still pose a health risk to producers who spend time inside the room, checking their cells, applying treatment for parasites, or putting lids on their trays, for example. The residual formaldehyde levels observed in this experiment differ from the results of Lafreniere (2002). When working with eclosed leafcutting bee cells, in a different incubator, and measuring residual formaldehyde with Dräger tubes, Lafreniere observed no measurable levels in the air when temperature was increased following neutralization. Although the presence of formaldehyde could be sense in the air (ie. slight odour and irritation of the eyes), the levels could not be measured using Dräger tubes sensitive to 2 ppm. The differences may be due to the use of live bee cells versus eclosed cells, greater volume of organic material with the live cells, the addition of water on the floor and differences in weather conditions at the time of the experiments. It is not clear what levels of hexamine if any remained in the air in this experiment as no system was used to specifically measure this chemical; however, an estimation of Dräger readings minus SKC readings suggests the presence of hexamine particularly in the first part of the experiment. No occupational exposure limits have been established for hexamine; however, this does not mean that this substance is not harmful. Hexamine is an irritant to eyes, nose, and skin, is hazardous, and may decompose to formaldehyde in the presence of perspiration. In an experiment looking at the levels of formaldehyde in an empty incubator room conducted in March 2005, it was found that some formaldehyde may remain in the room following formaldehyde fumigation, neutralization, ventilation, and sweeping of the floor. These findings may have been the result of the leaking of some formaldehyde gas, as well as specific incubator characteristics. Even though neutralization with ammonia gas significantly reduces the concentration of formaldehyde in the air, the presence of any residual formaldehyde is likely influenced by a number of factors which may not be easily assessed. These include factors related to the incubator, materials and conditions in the incubator, and venting efficacy, for example. The results of the studies suggest that formaldehyde gas may become trapped or absorbed in the incubator (eg. in cells, trays, ducts, or walls, etc.), then be released into the air, as temperature increases (above approx. 15 o C). It has been reported that formaldehyde gas 4 may be absorbed or remain on the surface of materials at least for a short period of time (Luftman 2005; Braswell et al. 1970). It is not clear what effect the high humidity air from outside (ie. during some rainy weather at the time) may have affected the venting of (hydrophilic) formaldehyde from the room in the experiment with the cells. Because of the hydrophilic nature of formaldehyde, temporary water on the floor of the incubator to increase humidity is not ideal in this experiment; however, it is not an uncommon practice and therefore represents a potential situation. A humidifier with a compartment of water would likely pose less of a conflict. The level of human sensitivity to formaldehyde gas, or ability to detect the gas in the air usually by smell or irritation to eyes, is believed to be around 0.1-2.0 ppm, where eyes are usually most sensitive. Those who are less sensitive to detection of the gas may be at a greater risk of significant exposure. Furthermore, the odour of leafcutting cells can mask the odour of formaldehyde so that its presence is less obvious. Due to the complexity of the chemical reactions, the results, and the limited scope of this experiment, more research may be warranted in this area. The presence of water or moisture in the room, including moist venting air, may be difficult to control and understand, yet continues to be a conflicting factor when fumigating with and neutralizing formaldehyde gas. The results also emphasize the importance of using caution when fumigating and wearing a full-face respirator and protective clothing to minimize any eye, nose, or skin absorption exposure to residual substances. Venting while in the room also helps reduce exposure to low residual gasses. Also, follow the paraformaldehyde product Handling Precautions as indicated on the label. Thanks to Greg Shirtliff for his generous help and participation with this study. Funding for this project was provided through the Covering New Ground initiative and in-kind contributions from the Manitoba Forage Seed Association. Thanks also to Dr. Currie at the University of Manitoba for the use of his Dräger and PortaSens II measuring systems. For more information about this study including information about different products and treatments, please contact David at (204) 945-3861. 5 Fig. 1 Levels of formaldehyde as measured by three systems, as well as changes in room temperature and relative humidity, during incubation of cells up to day 15, following fumigation, neutralization and venting for 48 hrs. Additional venting occurred (14 times a day for 10 min. periods), using a timer on the exhaust wall fan, up to incubation day 7 (approx. June 21), when parasite strips were placed in the room. Literature Cited Braswell J.R., D.R. Spiner, and R.K. Hoffman. 1970. Adsorption of formaldehyde by various surfaces during gaseous decontamination. Applied Microbiology 20(5): 765-769. Dugan, M. and E. Serago. 2005. Hexamine – MSDS sheet. Website: http://www.hummelcroton.com/msds/hexmn_m.html. Last accessed Feb. 21, 2006. Environment Canada & Health Canada (EC/HE). 1999. Priority Substances List Assessment Report: Formaldehyde. 102 pp. Goerzen, D.W. 1992. Paraformaldehyde Fumigation of Alfalfa Leafcutting Bee Nest Materials. Saskatchewan Agriculture Development Fund. Kawamata, S. and H. Kodera. 2004. Reduction of formaldehyde concentrations in the air and cadaveric tissues by ammonium carbonate. Anatomical Science International, 79:152-157. Lafreniere, R. 2001. Manitoba leafcutting bee extension report. Forage Seed News, winter, 32-35. Lafreniere, R. 2002. Safer techniques of decontaminating leafcutting bee equipment using formaldehyde based products. Covering New Ground report. Luftman, H.S. 2005. Neutralization of formaldehyde gas by ammonium bicarbonate and ammonium carbonate. Applied Biosafety 10(2):101-106. New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services (NJDHSS). 1999. Hexamine – hazardous substance fact sheet. Website: www.state.nj.us/health/eoh/rtkweb/0996.pdf. Last accessed Feb. 21, 2006. OSHA, 2002. Formaldehyde fact sheet. http://www.osha.gov/OshDoc/data_General_Facts/formaldehyde-factsheet.pdf Ostermann, D. 2005. Leafcutting bee research and management. Forage Seed News, spring/summer, 15&46. February 2006 (Updated January 2008) 7

Options for Chemical Weed Control in Alfalfa seed crops

Control of Canada thistle in Alfalfa is still a large concern for seed producers. MFSA is investigating control measures in the form of herbicides.
 
Spraying will be completed by using the MFSA bike sprayer in 3m by 6m plots, following a random complete block design with 4 replicates.  Two alfalfa sites were chosen around Arborg and Fisher Branch. The products and rates used can be found in the table below.

Trials will be monitored after spraying and rated for crop tolerance and weed control efficacy at 7, 14 and 21 days after spraying. The samples will be harvested when mature, threshed and cleaned, then analyzed for yield comparisons.

Results will be published in the Winter issue of  “Forage Seed News” and presented at the Manitoba Forage Seed Association Conference being held at the Victoria in on
January 10& 11, 2010.

Acknowledgments: We would like to thank all of the producers who have agreed to let us conduct these trials on their land. The MFSA could not carry out our research without the generous donations of our producers.  Further, the MFSA would like to thank the chemical companies that have generously donated sample product for our 2009 trials: thank you to Bayer CropScience.

Coordinated by: 
         
Peace Region Forage Seed Association
Sandra Burton


With Cooperating Research Sites in:
British Columbia        Alberta            Manitoba

 
With Cooperating Research Sites in:
British Columbia        Alberta            Manitoba
 


Introduction

This report provides a summary of the grass seed trials conducted under the Western Grass Seed Testing Program during 2007. The main objective of these trials is to determine the seed production potential and adaptability of grass varieties for contract seed production for the domestic and export market. All attempts have been made to ensure the success of these trials; however, at times environmental conditions may adversely affect the yield results regardless of the management practices followed.

We thank the following companies and agencies for their seed entries and sponsorship of our 2008 research endeavours:
Agriculture & Agri-Food Canada
Barenbrug USA
Brett Young
DLF International/Trifolium
Snow Brand Seeds
Turf Care

The following groups are also thanked for their cooperation with the program and research site management:
Alberta Research Council
Alberta Agriculture & Rural Development
Agriculture & Agri-Food Canada
Manitoba Forage Seed Association
Peace Region Forage Seed Association


 WGST Co-operating Research Sites and Contacts

Fort St. John, BC
& Baldonnel, BC    Sandra Burton, PRFSA Coordinator
Peace Region Forage Seed Association
Box 6135, Fort St. John, BC V1J 4H6
Phone 877 630 2198 or (250) 789 6885
Fax (250) 789 6884
Email : This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
    Vicki Moser, PRFSA Summer Student
c/o Peace Region Forage Seed Association
Box 6135, Fort St. John, BC V1J 4H6
Phone 877 630 2198 or (250) 789 6885
Fax (250) 789 6884
Email : This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Beaverlodge, AB    Sandra Burton (interim contact)
Peace Region Forage Seed Association
Box 6135, Fort St. John, BC V1J 4H6
Phone 877 630 2198 or (250) 789 6885
Fax (250) 789 6884
Email : This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
    Owen Lee, Forage Technician
Agriculture & AgriFood Canada
Box 29, Beaverlodge, AB. T0M 0C0
Phone (780) 354-5140
Fax (780) 354-8171
Email : This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Vegreville, AB    Jay Woosaree, Researcher
Alberta Research Council
Hwy. 16A, 75 Street
Vegreville, Alberta
Phone: (780) 632-8209
Fax: (780) 632-8612
E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.     Marshall McKenzie, Technician
Alberta Research Council
Hwy. 16A, 75 Street
Vegreville, Alberta
Phone: (780) 632-8254
Fax: (780) 632-8612
E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Arborg, MB    Heather McBey, MFSA Administrator
Manitoba Forage Seed Association
Box 2000
Arborg, MB. R0C 0A0
Phone (204) 376-3309
Fax (204) 376-3311
Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
    Laura Wolonshyn, MFSA Researcher
Manitoba Forage Seed Association
Box 2000
Arborg, MB. R0C 0A0
Phone (204) 376-3314
Fax (204) 376-3311
Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


Date Collection Procedures
Seed Yield        reported on a clean seed basis in kg per ha (kg per ha x  0.9 = lbs per ac)
Harvest Date        date the variety was swathed or cut
Plant Height        measured in centimeters and is the height of the plant at harvest from ground level to the tip of the seed head (cm x 2.54 = inches)

Trial Procedures
For information on specific trial procedures, contact the respective location representative listed on this page.

* Please Note * Statistical Analysis Procedures *
Some varieties in this report have been tested for shorter periods of time than others. It is advised not to use average yield figures to make variety comparisons for single year data. Only after a minimum of 3 years of testing, should data be considered as 90% reliable. In some cases, data may not be reported due to extreme variations that cannot be accounted for in the statistical design.

Statistical information for this report was generated through an Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Least significant difference (LSD) values are presented at the bottom of each table, when statistically significant differences are present at the 5% level of significance. This means there is a 95% probability that you can reject the hypothesis that the treatments are the same; in other words there is only a 5% probability that the treatment differences occurred by chance. If the difference in treatment values is less than the LSD value, the treatments are not considered to be significantly different.

Disclaimer
Reference to commercial products or trade names is made with the understanding that no discrimination is intended and no endorsement is implied.
  Protocol for Western Grass Seed Testing (WGST) Program

Revised January 2008


1.    Research Sponsorship

The research sponsorship of $120 CAN/entry/year/location is requested on an annual basis, as years of production will vary with the species being tested, and applies to the establishment year as well.  Peace Region Forage Seed Association will coordinate and administer funds for the Western Grass Seed Testing Program.

2.    Eligibility of Entries

Released and experimental lines of all tame and native grass species will be considered if they are of interest to commercial seed companies. We reserve the right not to initiate tests:    
    - if seed arrives late
    - if there is lack of space in any year at a particular location
    - if there are too few entries in any year for a particular location

3.    Seed Requirements and Deadline for Seed Entry

The applicant will provide for EACH TEST LOCATION:

    - 50 gm of bentgrass, Kentucky bluegrass or timothy
- 100 gm of orchardgrass; creeping red, chewings, hard, meadow, sheep or tall fescue; annual or perennial ryegrass
    - 200 gm of meadow or smooth bromegrass, wheatgrasses

Submitted seed shall be supplied by March 1 of the establishment year and will include the percent germination and relative maturity (early, medium or late) of each variety.  Please indicate whether the submission is a forage or turf type.  For fescues please indicate whether the submission is a creeping, chewings, hard, meadow, sheep or tall fescue.  

4.    Use of Seed

Seed submitted will only be used to establish the agreed upon trials. The seed will NOT be used for increase, selection or distribution.

 5.    Test Locations

1.    Fort St. John, British Columbia        
2.    Beaverlodge, Alberta        
3.    Vegreville, Alberta
4.    Arborg, Manitoba


The applicant selects the locations where their material is to be tested.















6.    Test Description

Due to plot equipment differences and land availability at the various test sites, certain conditions must be met in establishing trials. Each test will be a randomized complete block consisting of a minimum of 4 replicates. No test will have more than 25 entries of a particular species. Plots will be seeded at appropriate seeding rates for the species being tested and normal cultural practices for the area will be carried out. A minimum of 3 sq. m will be harvested.

Species, check varieties and years of testing (establishment year and seed production years):

Bentgrasses - 18th Green - 4 yrs.        Tall fescue - Courtenay - 4 yrs
Kentucky bluegrass - Abbey - 4 yrs        Orchardgrass - Kay - 3 yrs
Meadow bromegrass - Fleet - 3 yrs        Annual ryegrass - Aubade - 1 yr
Smooth bromegrass - Carlton - 4 yrs        Perennial ryegrass - Norlea - 2 yr
Meadow fescue - Mimer - 4 yrs        Timothy - Climax - 4 yrs
Red fescue - Boreal - 3 yrs                            

Information to be recorded will include clean seed yield, % stand in fall and spring, plant height, harvest date and if available, climatic data for each test site.

7.    Publication of Results

Data will undergo appropriate statistical analyses and each applicant will be provided with an annual report. Information on varieties will be made available in various annual reports and to seed producers upon request.

8.    All reasonable care will be taken to ensure a successful test; however, a guarantee cannot be made that a particular test will be successful. If required a test will be reseeded.

9.    For further information, contact:

Sandra Burton, Coordinator
Peace Region Forage Seed Association
Box 6135
Fort St. John, British Columbia
Canada V1J 4H6
    Telephone: 1 877 630 2198 or (250) 789 6885
Fax: (250) 789-6884
Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

 
Kentucky Bluegrass Trials Established in 2007
Arborg, Manitoba: 2008 Seed Production Results
                
        Seed        Plant
        Yield    Harvest    Height
Company    Variety    (kg/ha)    Date    (cm)
Barenbrug USA    BAR PP 0468    191    30-Jul    73
    BAR VV 8536    579    30-Jul    75
Check    Abbey    504    30-Jul    74
                
    Mean    425        74
    CV (%)    8.2        26.6
    LSD (0.05)    255.9        13.8
                
    






Summary of Seed Yield (kg per ha) for Kentucky Bluegrass
in Western Canada WGST 2007-2008
                    
            Seed yield / production year
Year of            Arborg
Seeding    Company    Variety    1    2    3
2007    Barenbrug USA    BAR PP 0468    191        
        BAR VV 8536    579        
     Check    Abbey    504        
                    



 


Fine Fescue Trials Established in 2006
Beaverlodge, Alberta 2008 Seed Production Results
                
        Seed        Plant
        Yield    Harvest    Height
Company    Variety    (kg /ha)    Date    (cm)
Barenbrug USA    01-FR-1    733    21-Jul    63
    Barena III    459    21-Jul    70
    Barthema    325    21-Jul    74
    Barustic    527    21-Jul    66
Turf Care    TL 10709    502    21-Jul    63
Check    Boreal    778    21-Jul    78
                
    Mean    554        69
    CV (%)    11.0        8.6
    LSD (0.05)    91.6        9.0
                
Fine Fescue Trials Established in 2007
Fort St. John, British Columbia 2008 Seed Production Results
                
        Seed        Plant
        Yield    Harvest    Height
Company    Variety    (kg /ha)    Date    (cm)
Barenbrug USA    Hardtop    470    17-Jul    62
Check    Boreal    762    23-Jul    78
                
    Mean    616        70
    CV (%)    9.7        6.8
    LSD (0.05)    134        11
                
Fine Fescue Trials Established in 2007
Beaverlodge, Alberta 2008 Seed Production Results
                
        Seed        Plant
        Yield    Harvest    Height
Company    Variety    (kg /ha)    Date    (cm)
Barenbrug USA    Hardtop    349    16-Jul    71
Brett Young    IS FRR 23    769    21-Jul    73
    IS FRR 29    798    21-Jul    72
Check    Boreal    931    21-Jul    81
                
    Mean    712        74
    CV (%)    15.1        6.3
    LSD (0.05)    172        7.4
 
Summary of Seed Yield (kg per ha) for Fine Fescues
in Western Canada WGST 2006-2008
                            
                Seed yield / production year
Year of                Beaverlodge    Fort St. John
seeding    Species    Company    Variety    1    2    1    2
2006    Creeping red    Barenbrug USA    01-FR-1    856    733        
            Barena III    439    459        
            Barthema    451    325        
            Barustic    742    527        
        Turf Care    TL10709    945    502        
          Check    Boreal    978    778        
2007    Hard fescue    Barenbrug USA    Hardtop    349         470    
    Creeping red    Brett Young    IS FRR 23    769            
            IS FRR 29    798            
          Check    Boreal    931          762    
                            

 
Tall Fescue Trials Established in 2007
Beaverlodge, Alberta 2008 Seed Production Results
                
        Seed        Plant
        Yield    Harvest    Height
Company    Variety    (kg/ha)    Date    (cm)
Barenbrug USA    BARFA 1005    1305    28-Jul    64
    BAR 3FABRT9    780    28-Jul    89
    Bariane    713    28-Jul    93
    Barcarella    903    22-Jul    95
Check    Courtenay    982    22-Jul    104
                
    Mean    937        89
    CV (%)    10.0        6.3
    LSD (0.05)    144        8.6
                






Summary of Seed Yield (kg per ha) for Tall Fescues
in Western Canada WGST 2007-2008
                                    
                Seed yield / production year
                                     
Year of                Beaverlodge    Fort St. John
seeding    Company    Variety    Type    1    2    3    1    2    3
2007    Barenbrug USA    BARFA 1005    Forage    1305                    
        BAR 3FABRT9    Forage    780                    
        Bariane    Forage    713                    
        Barcarella    Forage    903                    
     Check    Courtenay    Forage    982                    
                                

 
Orchard Grass Trials Established in 2007
Arborg, Manitoba:  2008 Seed Production Results
                
        Seed        Plant
        Yield    Harvest    Height
Company    Variety    (kg/ha)    Date    (cm)
Barenbrug USA    Baridana    320    25-Jul    130
    Intensiv    373    25-Jul    131
Check    Kay    368    25-Jul    130
                
    Mean    353        130.5
    CV (%)    22.8        1.3
    LSD (0.05)    139        4


Orchard Grass Trials Established in 2007
Beaverlodge, Alberta:  2008 Seed Production Results
                
        Seed        Plant
        Yield    Harvest    Height
Company    Variety    (kg/ha)    Date    (cm)
Barenbrug USA    Baridana    346    23-Jul    97
    Intensiv    351    23-Jul    113
Check    Kay    346    23-Jul    105
                
    Mean    348        105
    CV (%)    19.1        4.6
    LSD (0.05)    115        8


Summary of Seed Yield (kg per ha) for Orchard Grass
in Western Canada WGST 2007-2008
                                    
                Seed yield / production year
                                     
Year of                Arborg    Beaverlodge
seeding    Company    Variety    Type    1    2    3    1    2    3
2007    Barenbrug USA    Baridana    Forage    320            346        
        Intensiv    Forage    373            351        
     Check    Kay    Forage    368            346        
                                
                                
                                
                                






 
Perennial Ryegrass Trials Established in 2007
Arborg, Manitoba:  2008 Seed Production Results
                
        Seed        Plant
        Yield    Harvest    Height
Company    Variety    (kg/ha)    Date    (cm)
Barenbrug USA    Remington    584    Aug 21    91
Check    Norlea    396    Aug 29    84
                
    Mean    490        88
    CV (%)    20.6        5.4
    LSD (0.05)    354        17

Perennial Ryegrass Trials Established in 2007
Vegreville, Alberta:  2008 Seed Production Results
                

        Seed        Plant
        Yield    Harvest    Height
Company    Variety    (kg/ha)    Date    (cm)
Barenbrug USA    Remington    NA    NA    NA
Check    Norlea    NA    NA    NA
                
    Mean            
    CV (%)            
    LSD (0.05)            
                


Summary of Seed Yield (kg per ha) for Perennial Ryegrass
in Western Canada WGST 2007-2008
                
            Seed yield / production year
Year of            Arborg
Seeding    Company    Variety    1        
2007    Barenbrug USA    Remington    584        
     Check    Norlea    396        
                    






 
Timothy Trials Established in 2005
Arborg, Manitoba 2008 Seed Production Results
                
        Seed        Plant
        Yield    Harvest    Height
Company    Variety    (kg /ha)    Date    (cm)
DLF International    DP 70-4731    109    21-Aug    97
    DP 70-4752    165    21-Aug    100
    Niklas    106    21-Aug    100
    Promesse    179    21-Aug    106
    Tundra    111    21-Aug    103
    Viking    108    21-Aug    98
    Winnetou    129    21-Aug    105
Check    Climax    74    21-Aug    105
                
    Mean    123        102
    CV (%)    33.9        8.7
    LSD (0.05)    61        13

Timothy Trials Established in 2005
Beaverlodge, Alberta 2008 Seed Production Results
                
        Seed        Plant
        Yield    Harvest    Height
Company    Variety    (kg / ha)    Date    (cm)
AAFC Beaverlodge    BRFLAL1    359    07-Aug    94
DLF International    Viking    370    07-Aug    86
Check    Climax    445    07-Aug    99
                
    Mean    391        94
    CV (%)    10.9        6.8
    LSD (0.05)    74        11
                
Note: Viking poor germination in first year        
                
Timothy Trials Established in 2005
Baldonnel, British Columbia 2008 Seed Production Results
                
        Seed        Plant
        Yield    Harvest    Height
Company    Variety    (kg / ha)    Date    (cm)
AAFC Beaverlodge    BRFLAL1    481    07-Aug    91
Check    Climax    293    07-Aug    84
                
    Mean    387        89
    CV (%)    4.9        7.6
    LSD (0.05)    42        15
 
Timothy Trials Established in 2006
Beaverlodge, Alberta 2008 Seed Production Results
                
        Seed        Plant
        Yield    Harvest    Height
Company    Variety    (kg / ha)    Date    (cm)
Brett Young    BY 19004    145    07-Aug    81
    BY 98665    257    07-Aug    90
    BY 98667    213    07-Aug    81
    BY 99966    341    07-Aug    77
    BY 99984    236    07-Aug    94
    CT70-9704    123    07-Aug    76
    FLP 07    57    07-Aug    83
    INDH 9803    276    07-Aug    90
Check    Climax    220    07-Aug    97
                
    Mean    208        85
    CV (%)    30.0        14.0
    LSD (0.05)    90        17

 

Timothy Trials Established in 2007
Arborg, Manitoba:  2008 Seed Production Results
                
        Seed        Plant
        Yield    Harvest    Height
Company    Variety    (kg/ha)    Date    (cm)
Barenbrug USA    Bor 9911    439    14-Aug    102
    Bor 2005    568    14-Aug    102
Check    Climax    516    14-Aug    103
                
    Mean    508        102
    CV (%)    16.2        3.4
    LSD (0.05)    143        6





Timothy Trials Established in 2007
Fort St. John, British Columbia 2008 Seed Production Results
                
        Seed        Plant
        Yield    Harvest    Height
Company    Variety    (kg /ha)    Date    (cm)
Barenbrug USA    Bor 9911    291    05-Aug    75
    Bor 2005    220    06-Aug    72
Brett Young    BY 19004    170    05-Aug    74
    BY 98665    285    06-Aug    75
    BY 98667    214    06-Aug    71
    BY 99966    328    06-Aug    76
    BY 99984    228    05-Aug    79
    CT 70-9704    132    06-Aug    67
    FLP07    103    06-Aug    73
    INPH 9803    351    05-Aug     81
Check    Climax    283    06-Aug     74
                
    Mean    237        74
    CV (%)    21.7        7.2
    LSD (0.05)    74        8